Idiophones are instruments whose sound is produced by vibration of the actual body of the instrument, rather than a string, membrane, or column of air. This group includes most percussion instruments such as cymbals, gongs, bells, pitched wood or metal, etc. but not drums (which are membranophones).



Ronald Bruce Smith’s “Constellation for orchestra and live electronics,” produced in collaboration between Berkeley Symphony and UC Berkeley’s Center for Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT).

The World Premiere was given by the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra under the baton of Maestro Kent Nagano on November 10, 2000; it was revised in 2003.