This figure shows the three basic topologies of circuit design for paper speakers which I have explored. All three designs can generate a magnetic field capable of driving audio.

1. Spiral. Spiral designs are probably the most effective at driving audio, everything else being equal. However, spiral design has serious drawbacks: Only one circuit can be created. Once the signal arrives at the end of the spiral, the only effective way to continue with any serial connection would be to break away from the plane, or break into the surface of the plane.

2. Parallel. This was Adrian's breakthrough idea. By using an open C like structure, rather than a closed spiral loop, it becomes possible to overcome the limitations of the Spiral pattern, in so far as serial connections within the plane can be achieved. The Acoustic drawing on this page, as well as the hexagram speakers at the top of the page, both use the Parallel structure. The parallel structure also has the benefit, as can be seen in the acoustic drawing, of being highly flexible for expressive effect and figuration, etc.

3. Sparse. The sparse topology is actually either a spiral or parallel structure in disguise. Any kind of texture can be used to create such a structure by strategically breaking connections within the texture so that current will flow in a desired path. The benefits of a sparse topology are that the actual path of the circuitry can be completely hidden, freeing the surface from specific technical constraints. However, the sparse topology is likely the least effective of the three designs here, since the flow of current would be necessarily inexact. The Computer Keyboard Speaker uses the sparse topology by breaking specific connections discretely to create a hidden spiral pattern. This deserves further exploration.

Image icon Topologies.jpg
Subjects in Music