This is an acoustic speaker using copper foil "circuitry" adhered to a paper surface (12" x 16"). The piece, titled Embryo, represents a few important aspects of my current paper speaker research. It utilizes the parallel/serial topology (see the topology figure) structure suited to the generation of large scale, distributed alternating electromagnet fields necessary to drive electromagnetic speakers. It also fuses form and function: The functional properties of coiled electromagnetic fields is formed into figural shapes: Birds, leaves, etc. Permanent magnets to drive the speaker properties of this object can be place don the obverse, or the object can be placed on a flexible magnet sheet directly.

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